How Insider Parties Interact with Outsider Parties: A Dynamic Model of European Party Systems

12 September 2019, Version 1
This content is an early or alternative research output and has not been peer-reviewed at the time of posting.


The dynamic of Insider parties that circulate in and out of government and Outsider parties can take four forms: a stable equilibrium, selective integration, a democratic cartel or transformation. Hypotheses are presented about the conditions in which each forms and may transit from one form to another. The models are illustrated with reference to national party systems. This is the first draft of a major long-term project


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