Exploring Changes in State Interest Group Systems: Replications and Extensions of the ESA Model

17 September 2019, Version 1
This content is an early or alternative research output and has not been peer-reviewed at the time of posting.


How have interest group populations in the fifty states changed in the 21st Century so far, and have factors like population growth, changing state ideology, economic performance, legislative professionalism, personal wealth, and shocks like the Great Recession shaped these changes? Using new data on state interest groups originally gathered by the National Institute for Money in State Politics, which I cleaned and introduced at last year, combined with several other measures of state politics, economic performance, and demographic change, I study these questions. With data covering the years 2006 to 2015 allowing for cross-state, as well as time-series, analysis, I explore the extent to which change in economic, political, and social variables lead to changes in state interest group systems, some of which replicates Gray and Lowery’s work. Their work holds-up well in the replications, but new extensions are also explored, including a new “capacity” term for the ESA model.


interest groups
state politics

Supplementary weblinks


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.