Comparative Politics

Pandemics and Political Development: The Electoral Legacy of the Black Death in Germany

Daniel Gingerich University of Virginia
Jan Vogler University of Virginia


Do pandemics have lasting consequences for political behavior? We address this question by examining the consequences of the most deadly pandemic of the last millennium: the Black Death (1347-1351). Our claim is that pandemics can influence politics in the long run if they impose sufficient loss of life so as to augment the price of labor relative to other factors of production. When this occurs, labor repressive regimes (such as serfdom) become untenable, which ultimately leads to the development of proto-democratic institutions and associated political cultures that shape modalities of political engagement for generations. We test our theory by tracing out the local consequences of the Black Death in German-speaking Central Europe. We find that areas hit hardest by the pandemic were more likely to: (1) adopt inclusive political institutions and equitable land ownership patterns; (2)exhibit electoral behavior indicating independence from landed elite influence during the transition to mass politics.

Summary of changes from Version 1

The most important changes in this new version of the paper are the following: (1) the addition of a new control variable accounting for distance to large rivers, (2) an extension that uses variation in the timing of Black Death outbreaks to more effectively isolate the quasi-random component of local mortality rates, and (3) an extension that uses dummy variables indicating whether or not an electoral district was in close vicinity (<10km) to specific geographic features (such as the ocean or large rivers) instead of absolute distances.


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Supplementary weblinks

Author Website (Jan Vogler)
Author Website (Jan Vogler)
Author Website (Daniel Gingerich)
Author Website (Daniel Gingerich)


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