This article explores the role of protests in politically engaging citizens, particularly in countries with a history of political violence. Focusing on the Chilean protests between October 2019 and March 2020, known as the Estallido Social, and the subsequent Constituent Plebiscite from 2020 to 2022, triggered by police violence, the study investigates the hypothesis. Chile has a history of institutional violence during Pinochet's authoritarian regime. The research indicates that municipalities with military bases before 1970 witnessed increased participation in the Estallido Social protests but had lower participation in the plebiscite and constituent member elections. These municipalities did not align strongly with any particular political coalition. Using statistical analysis, the study reveals that political victimization during the Pinochet era and contemporary rememberance in social media significantly influence this pattern. The findings suggest that political violence can stimulate participation beyond voting but may also weaken the link between voters and political elites.
Extended the analysis to 2021 Presidential Election and the 2022 Exit Plebiscite. Added empirical mechanism analysis based on past political victimization and contemporary rememberance in social media.