From Gender Gap to Gender Gaps: Bringing Nonbinary People into Political Behavior Research


The gender gap in voting is one of the most well-documented findings in political behavior across democracies. However, gender gap research has traditionally assumed that everyone is either a man or a woman. How do nonbinary people differ from men and women in their party identification and voting behavior? We answer this question using data from the 2021 Canadian Election Study online panel. Nonbinary people are much less likely to identify with and vote Liberal or Conservative and much more likely to identify with and vote for the social democratic New Democratic Party (NDP) than both men and women. Many of these gaps persist even when restricting the analysis to LGBTQ respondents, adjusting for demographic variables that predict nonbinary identity, and adjusting for issue attitudes. Nonbinary people’s distinctiveness from men and women suggests that researchers need to incorporate nonbinary people into studies of political behavior.


Supplementary material

Supplementary Materials
Supplementary Materials

Supplementary weblinks

2021 Canadian Election Study
Link to data and documentation for 2021 Canadian Election Study (Harvard Dataverse)


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting and Discussion Policy [opens in a new tab] – please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .